HIGH SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (hs-CRP): THE USE OF REYNOLDS RISK SCORE FOR PREDICTING THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Various efforts focused on primary prevention significantly reduce the occurrence of CVD incidence. In addition, it is known that 15-20% of CVD incidence mainly occurs in patients without CVD risk factors (age, male, smoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of coronary heart disease before the age of 60 years, and obesity).
A NEW REFERENCE STANDARD RECOMMENDATION FOR THE USE OF BONE TURNOVER MARKERS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF OSTEOPOROSIS
Osteoporosis is a major health problem worldwide. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue microarchitecture which cause the bone to become brittle and consequently increase the risk of bone fracture. Although bone mineral density (BMD) is used to conduct osteoporosis diagnosis, the low value of BMD is not the only risk factor for bone fractures it is actually an efficient method to identify people with high risk of bone fractures.
Oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL)
Lipoprotein is a major transporter of cholesterol and fatty acids in the body. Lipoprotein is divided into several types based on its composition and size, one of which is low density lipoprotein (LDL). LDL plays a role in delivering cholesterol to the whole body to maintain cell viability and provide cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis. Patients with heart and blood vessels disorders often have normal levels of LDL-C, but a changed quality of the LDL. This change occurs because LDL particles are oxidized and glycated.