CULTURE AND RESISTANCE USING VITEK 2 COMPACT INSTRUMENT
Culture and resistance analysis using VITEK 2 Compact instrument is conducted to identify and test the sensitivity (resistance) of antimicrobial which is more accurate, validated, standardized and relatively faster.
HEMOCHROMATOSIS IN BETA THALASSEMIA
Hemochromatosis is the negative effect of repeated blood transfusion which, when left with no adequate therapies, may lead to organ damage, morbidity and mortality. Iron load in the body can be measured using several methods, including liver biopsy and ferritin level blood test. Test of ferritin serum level is more comfortable and easier to find, but may be compromised by inflammation, recurring diseases, vitamin C deficiency and hepatitis (increase of ferritin level) which is also present in thalassemia patients.
HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA AND SMALL, DENSE LDL
LDL is the primary carrier of cholesterol in the plasma, and is intensely involved in atherosclerosis process. The lipoprotein group consists of a number of different sub-fractions, and is commonly divided into particles of large, intermediate and small size. Small, dense LDLs are atherogenic particles as they reside in the arteries' wall, ready to be oxidized and transport enzymes for atherosclerosis such as lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (4).
The formation of small, dense LDLs occurs through intravascular lipoprotein remodeling as a result of type 2 DM, metabolic syndromes, kidney disease and preeclampsia. The key trigger factor is the presence of hypertriglyceridemia, particularly the increase of large-size VLDLs. This results in the formation of slow-metabolism LDL particles (residence time: 5 days), which is the target for ester cholesterol exchange from the particle's nucleus and replaced by TG. Transformed LDLs turn into potential substrates for hepatic lipase (HL). When HL activity is considerably high, lipolysis will produce smaller, denser particles (4). Management of dyslipidemia related to small, dense LDL may use fibrates and statins. Fibrates function to reduce plasma TG level and correct the underlying metabolic disorders. While statins eliminate VLDL particles via a path mediated by receptors and reduce LDL's residence time in the circulation (4).